Author: Нагина Дана Александровна

“…SUPPORT IS EVERYWHERE”. An interview with Irina P. Susidko

Abstract: Irina P. Susidko, Full Professor, Doctor of Art Studies, Head of the Analytical Musicology Department at the Gnesin Russian Academy of Music, is one of the leading musicologists in Russia. She is a Chair of the Academy’s Dissertation Council. She supervises graduate theses and doctoral dissertations. She also leads a range of international research projects: an online journal Contemporary Musicology and two regular conferences— Opera in Musical Theater: History and Present Time and Musical Composition. Musical Composition was initiated by professors of the Analytical Musicology Department. The conference focuses on current issues in studying music, its internal canons, the development history of its idiom and material, as well as state of the art in the technique of musical composition. The goal of the research forum Opera in Musical Theater is to explore opera as a synthetic phenomenon in all its multiple dimensions: music, poetry and literature, scenography, vocal performance, and the director’s vision. In her interview, Irina Susidko spoke about the conferences taking place in 2021 and new opportunities that opened up for the Academy due to its victory in the “Priority 2030” program. Download the article

RESEARCH IN THE GNESSINS RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF MUSIC: PRIORITY 2030 PROGRAM. Interview with A.S. Ryzhinsky and T.I. Naumenko

Abstract: The article discusses the results of the interviews with Alexander S. Ryzhinsky, Rector of the Gnessins Russian Academy of Music, and Tatiana I. Naumenko, the Academy’s Vice Rector for Research. The questions were related to the program “Priority 2030”. The year 2021 was named the Year of Science and Technology in Russia. In this regard, “Priority”, described as an “academic leadership program”, is one of the key initiatives of the Russian Government. The program aims “to form a large group of universities that will become the leaders in creating new scientific knowledge, technology, and developments for introduction into the economy and social sphere in Russia”. The program will provide 106 Russian universities with solid funding to conduct large-scale research including international projects. The program funds may be allocated to enhance research and laboratory facilities or to implement new research programs. The Gnessins Russian Academy of Music is one of the winners of the “Priority 2030” program. In his interview, Professor A.S. Ryzhinsky, Doctor of Art Studies, Rector of the Academy, spoke about the participation in the program. In particular, he focused on the following: the original idea to join the program, the team that designed the Gnessins Academy development program, the Academy’s policies and strategies as part of the “Priority” program. Professor T.I. Naumenko, Doctor of Art Studies, Vice Rector for Research, spoke about further development of research and the support provided to the Academy’s current initiatives and new projects that became possible due to the participation in the “Priority” program. Download the article

HAYDN, MOZART AND PLEYEL: RIVALRY AND INTERINFLUENCES

Abstract: Ignaz Pleyel was one of the talented and extraordinarily popular composers of his time. At least twice in his life he could instill a sense of rivalry in his eminent contemporaries—Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. This gave birth to several most interesting instrumental works of the 18th century, i.e., the “Haydn” Quartets by Mozart and the Sinfonia Concertante in B flat major by Haydn. Mark Evan Bonds has convincingly shown that the “forefather” of the genre was not the only person involved in the three out of six Mozart’s quartets dedicated to Haydn. When composing his works, Mozart made himself familiar with Pleyel’s Quartets Oр. 1 written according to the model of Haydn’s works. Mozart, to all appearances, decided to surpass Pleyel. Haydn’s Sinfonia Concertante in B flat major was composed during the creative competition with Pleyel in London. It was organized by rival impresarios Johann Peter Salomon and Wilhelm Kramer. The composition was Haydn’s answer to similar works by his ex-pupil Pleyel—Sinfonia Concertante in F major and Sinfonia Concertante in A major. However, where Mozart was an absolute winner leaving behind not entirely independent quartet experiments of his rival, the competition between Haydn and Pleyel ended in a “draw”. The London concert symphonies of both composers are marked by the maturity of style, beautiful melodism, compositional creativity as well as the harmonic balance of virtuosic solo parts and orchestral monumentalism. Pleyel was instrumental in the very existence of certain works by Mozart and Haydn. However, both of them also influenced his style. This is especially true of Pleyel’s interpretation of the sonata form. In the first quartets he relied on Haydn’s model with the variant transformation of the main theme, then, however, he resorts to Mozart’s model with its thematic plurality, combinatorics, and thematic and structural parallels with the Italian opera arias. Pleyel’s symphonies concertante are the extreme of similarity to Mozart’s form. Download the article

Wilhelm Friedemann Bach’s clavier fantasies: A creative dialogue with the father

Abstract: W.F. Bach was greatly influenced by the personality and style of his great father — Johann Sebastian Bach. As the first teacher of clavier and composition, his father remained Friedemann’s main mentor throughout his life. For him, his father’s music was the highest artistic reference point. W.F. Bach’s woks have numerous quotations and allusions to J. S. Bach’s compositions. These borrowings did not go unnoticed by the composers’ contemporaries. According to the musicologist T. Frumkis, the composer was following his father’s footsteps as a slave. At the same time, an 18th century music theorist F.W. Marpurg in his Legende Einiger Musikheiligen reported on Friedemann’s cases of plagiarism. However, it seems that in most cases such quotes in Friedman’s music do not indicate the lack of one’s own imagination or attempts of blind copying. They are more about an original creative reinterpretation of the borrowed material. The article explores the series of W. F. Bach’s polyaffective (the term by Y. S. Bocharov) clavier fantasies: F. 16, F. 18, F. 19 and F. 21. They are marked by the biggest number of citations from J. S. Bach’s music. These compositions, to some extent, can be considered as free “fantasia on themes” originally written by Sebastian Bach. The borrowings manifest themselves in motifs, phrases, textured drawings, development techniques, and even compositional principles. At the same time, the quotations are surrounded by W. F. Bach’s original compositional material and placed in new structural conditions. This creates the conditions for creative dialogues with J. S. Bach. They are of different quality and emotional mood and range from a heart-to-heart talk to a heated debate. Download the article

Международный научный форум “Опера в музыкальном театре: история и современность”

Аннотация: Статья представляет собой рецензию на Международную научную конференцию «Опера в музыкальном театре: история и современность», прошедшую 11–15 ноября 2019 года в Российской академии музыки имени Гнесиных и Государственном институте искусствознания. Инициатором и организатором конференции стала доктор искусствоведения, профессор, заведующая кафедрой аналитического музыкознания РАМ имени Гнесиных Ирина Петровна Сусидко. Мероприятие проводилось при поддержке РФФИ (Проект № 19-012-20019). В ходе 13 заседаний конференции обсуждались разнообразные аспекты оперного спектакля – история и теория оперных жанров, особенности традиций национальных оперных школ, музыкальная драматургия и стилистика конкретных сочинений, проблемы исполнительства, либретто, сценографии, режиссуры, эстетика нового музыкального театра и многие другие. Столь широкий круг вопросов позволил пригласить к их обсуждению специалистов в области музыковедения, филологии, театроведения, изобразительного искусства и архитектуры, музыкальной критики, композиторов. Всего в конференции приняли участие 178 ученых и молодых специалистов из 15 стран мира – Австрии, Великобритании, Германии, Греции, Испании, Италии, Казахстана, Китая, Литвы, Мексики, Польши, России, США, Украины, Хорватии. Доклады читались на русском и английском языках. Благодаря своим масштабам мероприятие превратилось в крупный международный научный форум. Abstract: This article is a review of the International Scientific Conference «Opera in Musical Theatre: History and Present Time», which was held on November 11–15, 2019 at the Gnessins Russian Academy of Music and the State Institute for Art Studies. Doctor of Art Studies, Full Professor, Head of the Analytical Musicology Department (Gnessins Russian Academy of Music) Irina Susidko was an initiator and an organizer of this conference. The event was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Project No. 19-012-20019). Various aspects of the opera performance were discussed during the 13 meetings of the conference. The aspects are – the history and theory of opera genres, national operas and its traditions, musical dramaturgy and style of specific compositions, problems of performance, libretto, set designs, direction, the new musical theater’s aesthetics and many others. Such a wide range of issues made it possible to invite experts in the field of musicology, philology, theater studies, visual arts and architecture, musical criticism and composers to discuss them. Altogether 178 scientists and young specialists from 15 countries of the world took part in the conference. They arrived from Austria, Great Britain, Germany, Greece, Spain, Italy, Kazakhstan, China, Lithuania, Mexico, Poland, Russia, USA, Ukraine, Croatia. The papers were read in Russian and English. Because of its scale, the event has become a major international academic forum. Скачать статью

Жанр концертной симфонии в творчестве Гайдна и Моцарта

Аннотация: Статья посвящена малоизученному в отечественном музыкознании жанру классической эпохи – концертной симфонии (фр. symphonie concertante, ит. sinfonia concertata) и ее воплощению в творчестве Й. Гайдна и В.А. Моцарта. В ней рассматриваются три основополагающих для истории и теории жанра вопроса. Первый – развитие представлений о термине и феномене кончертанте. В справочных, энциклопедических и научных трудах XVIII – начала XXI века фигурируют различные точки зрения на этот жанр; в одних подчеркивается его симфоническая природа, в других – концертная, в третьих – смешанная. В связи с этим второй освещаемый в статье вопрос – различные модели концертных симфоний, выработанные в разных региональных традициях. Автор выделяет две магистральные линии развития жанра – условно, немецко-французскую (К. и А. Стамицы, К. Каннабих, Ж.-Б. Даво, Дж. Камбини, Ф.Ж. Госсек и другие) и австрийскую (Й. Гайдн, К.Д. фон Диттерсдорф, В.А. Моцарт, И. Плейель, Ф.А. Хоффмейстер, Л. ван Бетховен и другие). В обеих традициях симфонии кончертанте представляют собой крупные циклические оркестровые сочинения с развитыми партиями двух или более солирующих инструментов, как правило с виртуозными каденциями в одной или нескольких частях. Обычно в таких сочинениях преобладали мажорные тональности и веселый праздничный колорит. Однако многие качества отличали австрийские концертные симфонии от немецко-французских. Особенности австрийских кончертанте (третий аспект исследования) рассмотрены в статье на примере концертных симфоний и концертов для нескольких солирующих инструментов Моцарта и Гайдна. Трех-или четырехчастный цикл, разнообразие музыкальных форм при опоре на сонатность во всех частях, продуманные интонационно-тематические связи, равноправие солистов и оркестра или даже преобладание оркестрового пласта – те ключевые черты, которые приближают австрийские кончертанте к симфонической трактовке, в отличие от более концертных немецко-французских сочинений в этом жанре. Abstract: The article focuses on the concert symphony (fr. symphonie concertante, it. sinfonia concertata) – a classical music form which remains little studied in Russian musicology – as is exemplified in the works of Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. The study raises three questions crucial for the history and theory of the genre. First, the article analyses the development of ideas about concertante as well as relevant terminology. Reference books and scientific works of the 18th-early 21st centuries provide different points of view on the genre. Some highlight its symphonic nature, while others take a middle position or lean toward its concert-related aspects. Second, the article analyses different models of concert symphonies shaped in different regional traditions. The study has allowed to distinguish two mainstream lines of genre development – German and French (C. Stamitz and A. Stamitz, C. Cannabich, J.B. Davaux, G. Cambini, F. J. Gossec, and others), and Austrian (J. Haydn, C.D. von Dittersdorf, W.A. Mozart, I. Pleyel, F.A. Hoffmeister, L. van Beethoven, and others). In both traditions, concert symphonies are generally cyclic orchestral works with elaborated parts for two or more solo instruments. They are often marked by virtuoso cadences in one or several movements as well as a major tonality and cheerful festive mood. However, in many aspects Austrian concert symphonies differ from German and French ones. The article examines the features of Austrian concertante (the third aspect of the research) based on the evidence from concert symphonies and concerts for several solo instruments by Mozart and Haydn. The key features include a three- or four-part cycle, a variety of...

О музыкальных идеях Симфонии Кончертанте Es-dur В.А. Моцарта в контексте проблем «своего» и «чужого»

Аннотация: Статья посвящена уникальному произведению В.А. Моцарта – Симфонии кончертанте для скрипки, альта и оркестра KV 364/320d Es-dur, которое рассматривается в свете разнообразных проявлений «своих» и «чужих» идей. Они реализуются как на уровне жанровых особенностей, так и в имманентно-музыкальном плане. Жанр концертной симфонии – новый для зальцбургской традиции, «привезенный» из мангеймско-парижского путешествия – трактуется Моцартом самобытно: не как концерт для нескольких инструментов и оркестра, а, скорее, как симфония с концертирующими инструментами. Музыкальный текст Симфонии кончертанте анализируется во взаимосвязях с произведениями самого Моцарта (ария Юнии Frai pensier più funesti из оперы «Луций Сулла», фортепианный «Женомм-концерт» KV 271), а также с сочинениями других композиторов – Я.В. Стамица, М. Гайдна, Ф. Шуберта и других. Abstract: The article is devoted to the unique work by W.A. Mozart Sinfonia concertante for violin, viola and orchestra KV 364/320d in E-flat major which is considered in the context of ideas of «own» and «another’s». These ideas are realized at the level of genre and in other elements of Symphony’s musical language. The genre of the concert symphony was new for the Salzburg tradition in Mozart’s time.  Composer «brought» it from his Mannheim-Paris voyage and interpreted in a very original way as a symphony with concert instruments instead of concert for several instruments and orchestra. The Symphony’s musical text is analyzed in connection with other Mozart’s works (Junia’s aria Frai pensier più funesti from the opera «Lucio Silla», Piano concerto «Jeunehomme» KV 271), as well as the works by other composers (J. Stamitz, M. Haydn, F. Schubert and others). Скачать