Category: Конкурсы научных работ

The final of the singspiel Doktor and Apotheker by Dittersdorf and the tradition of the opera buffa

Abstract: Doktor and Apotheker, a singspiel by Dittersdorf, is one of the most successful and popular operas of the 18th century. Many researchers claim that the reason for its popularity is the “chain finale” that was first introduced by the composer. During the theatre reformation under the reign of Joseph II, German opera did not have its own models of final scenes to complete the acts. Dittersdorf was one of the pioneer composers who first applied Italian models to a singspiel. The finale is one of the central scenes in opera buffa demonstrating sophisticated dramatic situations and original music solutions. The article compares the final of the first act of Doktor and Apotheker and central finals of Mozart’s Le Nozze di Figaro as well as Dittersdorf’s Italian opera Democrito Corretto. The detailed analysis of the dramatic line, the structure of final scenes and means of expression shows that the opera embraces Italian traditions on different levels: from plots and characters to specific musical means. All of them make an organic contribution to the traditions of singspiel. Dittersdorf’s new approach to the opera finale laid the foundation for future generations of Austrian and German composers. Download the article

Wilhelm Friedemann Bach’s clavier fantasies: A creative dialogue with the father

Abstract: W.F. Bach was greatly influenced by the personality and style of his great father — Johann Sebastian Bach. As the first teacher of clavier and composition, his father remained Friedemann’s main mentor throughout his life. For him, his father’s music was the highest artistic reference point. W.F. Bach’s woks have numerous quotations and allusions to J. S. Bach’s compositions. These borrowings did not go unnoticed by the composers’ contemporaries. According to the musicologist T. Frumkis, the composer was following his father’s footsteps as a slave. At the same time, an 18th century music theorist F.W. Marpurg in his Legende Einiger Musikheiligen reported on Friedemann’s cases of plagiarism. However, it seems that in most cases such quotes in Friedman’s music do not indicate the lack of one’s own imagination or attempts of blind copying. They are more about an original creative reinterpretation of the borrowed material. The article explores the series of W. F. Bach’s polyaffective (the term by Y. S. Bocharov) clavier fantasies: F. 16, F. 18, F. 19 and F. 21. They are marked by the biggest number of citations from J. S. Bach’s music. These compositions, to some extent, can be considered as free “fantasia on themes” originally written by Sebastian Bach. The borrowings manifest themselves in motifs, phrases, textured drawings, development techniques, and even compositional principles. At the same time, the quotations are surrounded by W. F. Bach’s original compositional material and placed in new structural conditions. This creates the conditions for creative dialogues with J. S. Bach. They are of different quality and emotional mood and range from a heart-to-heart talk to a heated debate. Download the article

COUNTERPOINT BATTLES IN THE 18TH CENTURY NAPLES: AN ATTEMPT OF HISTORICAL RECONSTRUCTION

Abstract: The article examines an underscrutinised polyphonic tradition formed in the 18th century Naples. This period is often associated with the heyday of Naples opera. Its development was driven by the opening of four conservatories, which produced highly qualified composers and singers. The 18th century opera of Italian composers stands high on the research agenda in the history of music, however, the unique counterpoint tradition formed within the Neapolitan conservatories is still in oblivion. The mid-18th century witnessed the emergence of two irreconcilable parties: the Leists (followers of Leonardo Leo) and the Durantists (followers of Francesco Durante). References to the century-long struggle of two educational schools are found in a range of Italian and European sources. However, they either say nothing about the origins of the conflict or report controversial information. The study of the origins of the conflict that evolved from simple competition to theoretical controversy shows that the main reason for the discord between the Leists and the Durantists was counterpoint—the discipline that completed the course of studying composition in the Neapolitan conservatories. Two different approaches to teaching not only testify to the birth of a unique polyphonic tradition in southern Italy, but also become an expression of a stylistic change in the mid-18th century European music. Download the article