Category: Техника музыкальной композиции


Abstract: Despite time and space are inseparable in music, they are sometimes explored separately. The term ‘chronotope’ unites both categories and has found an extensive use in musicology. However, musicologists use the term to denote quite different concepts. The article proposes a new definition of ‘сhronotope’. It draws on the framework and aims of the suggested method of сhronotopic analysis of piano music. Together with the semantic analysis, this method ensures in-depth comprehension of all the elements of musical fabric and its semantic and emotional ‘vibrations’. This approach has proved effective to study both classical music and music of later eras. The article reports the results of the application of the analytical method to explore B. Bartók’s Minor Seconds, Major Sevenths, for piano (Mikrokosmos Vol. 6/144). On the one hand, Bartók’s piano work exemplifies all kinds of changes in temporal and spatial structure of the chronotope, with the spatial structure taking the lead. Not all the changes (metamorphoses) are noticeable at first glance. On the other hand, Minor Seconds, Major Sevenths develops as a dialogue of intervals, i.e., their relations and transformations. It is filled with micro-meanings and may be referred to as an interval-based dramaturgy of the composition. This is characteristic of Bartók’s creative method. He was extremely careful about the sound material and tended to explore its small structural units. Скачать статью


Abstract: The article explores Variations on an Old Russian Chant for Oboe and Strings by Vladimir Dukelsky (1955) as an example of the “Russian theme” (using the term by M. Druskin) which is not typical for Dukelsky’s late works. Variations is one of the few classical compositions by Duke recorded during his lifetime. As is shown in the table, the Russian theme had been a high priority in Dukelsky’s oeuvre till the late 1930s, while during the next decade (after taking the US citizenship) the composer almost gave it up. Variations appeared in the time of historical changes. This work marked Duke’s nostalgia for the “imperial” period of Russian history. That year Duke published his first book—memoirs Passport to Paris. At the same time, he entered into the long-lasting collaboration with the Radio Liberty. As a musical text and a historical document, Variations correlate with the question put by Prof. Richard Taruskin: Is There a “Russia Abroad” in Music? Variations are modal by nature and formulaic in structure. The composer made a very flexible use of the formulaic principle in his series of variations where the initial theme changed beyond recognition. The analysis of historical documents suggests that in his late works Dukelsky sought to give his own perspective on the historical mission of the first-wave émigré. Download the article


Abstract: Vincent d’Indy developed his own understanding of the ideal algorithm of constructing musical forms. In support of his concept, he took a general artistic perspective. His aim, apparently, was to confirm the special status of the suggested compositional strategies as universal for different kinds of art. These strategies are grounded in such categories as rhythm, order, proportionality, and symmetry inherent to any kind of spatial/temporal art with architecture and music representing the extremes of the spatial/temporal continuum. D’Indy established the correlations between the spatial/temporal arts by embracing the ideas of Hegel, Ruskin, and Lévesque. To explore these ideas, the article resorts to the cultural and historical analysis. D’Indy argues that the “cyclic principle” is the most mature historically and the most perfect constructively. The principle applied exclusively to multi-movement compositions has its basis in the translational symmetry of the initial pattern-cell together with its variant renewal. The “cyclic principle” finds its supreme realization in the “cyclic sonata” and the Gothic cathedral. The article is the first attempt to analyse how the “cyclic principle” is used per se, while its particular implementation in music has repeatedly been discussed. The latter was initiated by d’Indy himself in his Cours de Composition Musicale. A step-by-step method of putting the cyclic principle into practice, regardless of the artistic material, is derived by applying the comparative analysis, which helps to develop universal models for working with repetitive patterns in spatial and temporal arts. The analysis revealed the following: first, a “cyclic element” is represented by a syntactically articulated structure which may function as an initial compositional unit (from musical cells to sculptural details); second, the elaboration on the artistic material in music and architecture is done through rhythmic transformations of patterns resulting in the new internal structure with the core preserved. The latter ensures the implementation of the aesthetic maxim “unity in diversity”, seen by d’Indy as crucial in constructing the artistic whole. Download the article


Abstract: The article explores recapitulation as a specific musical phenomenon which is rare in the arts that exist in time. The article reveals a deep dialectic of the recapitulation as an agent of development and affirmation which drives changes even with literal repetition. Recapitulation is a convincing proof that academic music tends to produce complete and substantive musical forms. The analysis is deliberately limited to ternary and sonata forms. They are associated with the most effective use of recapitulation as well as with the organic combination of several approaches to form building. Based on the system of views developed primarily in Russian musicology, the article reveals a specific role of recapitulation and its characteristics. It further explores the role of repeatability which is manifest in the arts with high level of generalization (“pure” instrumental music, architecture, choreography). The recapitulation in classical and romantic music is analyzed through its perception by a competent listener with a developed “sense of recapitulation”. This approach allows to focus on the effect of “frustrated expectations” as well as various interpretations and unique artistic solutions offered by composers. Theme and harmony are seen as the foundations of form (as a type of composition). They are used to approach retransition as well as a more or less significant reworking of the recapitulation which is sometimes expected at its very beginning. A special focus is given to individual approaches to recapitulation in the works by W. A. Mozart, L. Beethoven, J. Brahms, and S. Rachmaninoff. In view of the above, the author concludes that recapitulation is a complex phenomenon, which, to a certain extent, accumulates some essential qualities of European academic music of the second half of the 18th-19th centuries. Download the article

J.M. Hauer: The phenomenon of Zwölftonspiel

Abstract: Josef Matthias Hauer (1883-1959) was an Austrian composer known for the development of twelve-tone music—the study of the tropes. His work and life, however, have been underscrutinised by Russian scholars. Hauer’s musical works are generally regarded as illustrations to his theory with little artistic value. Meanwhile, the significance of his legacy goes beyond the twelve-tone composition: Hauer paves the way for discoveries in music of the second half of the 20th century. The article focuses on Hauer’s later works which centre around the twelve-tone game (Zwölftonspiel). This name is used by almost all Hauer’s compositions created in the last two decades of his life for a variety of instruments. The concept of Zwölftonspiel is universal—it is a composition technique, an approach to music notation, a genre, a philosophy, a meditation, and didactics. The same broad meaning is given to the concept “game”, which is understood as a certain ontological category that eliminates the subject, the composer’s “Self” from the process of composing, making this process logical, predictable, almost automatic, and, at the same time, easy and relaxed, like a children’s play. Hauer resorts to a significant simplification of the previous technique of tropes, relying on a single twelve-tone series already containing harmony, rhythm and form. Zwölftonspiel does not fit into traditional ideas about an opus as a result of the composer’s work. All music—absolute, unchangeable, eternal—has already been created by God, and it remains for humans only to study and comprehend it using their intuition. This is what the twelve-tone game serves for. This position based on the Eastern principle of non-action makes us recall the idea of the “end of the time of composers”, the concept of “non-work”, and meditative music, which appeared later. Thus, the name of Hauer should stand next to the name of Schoenberg.  Hauer’s ideas make him part of the circle of composers of the second half of the 20th century: J. Cage, K. Stockhausen, G. Scelsi, and V. Martynov. Download the article  

Fugues for chorus and soloist ensemble in Joseph Haydn’s late masses

Abstract: Fugues from Haydn’s late masses are marked by similarity achieved through the repetition of techniques and musical material. Most of the fugues are built on a two-part thematic formula with a particular rhythmic and melodic pattern. Choral fugues in late masses are small in size and generally follow the rules of “strict style”. These rules are only violated in the ensemble cadenza of soloists before the final choral tutti, thus becoming the secret of the form. Ensemble cadenzas are characterized by the transparency and relief of the vocalized texture as well as lighter counterpoint with parallel thirds and sixths and the alternating solos of duets and trios. Musical syntax is homophonic. It repeats two-measure structural units or a period divided into two phrases, etc. Fugues with the ensemble cadenza of soloists are not limited to late masses only. They are also found in the end of Haydn’s “The Creation”. However, the attempts to find other examples of this form—in Haydn’s works or beyond—have so far been unsuccessful. Haydn’s choral fugues with the ensemble cadenza of soloists are quite in line with the 18th century Viennese concerted mass and the special role the mass played in the lavish annual autumn celebrations in Esterházy. Download the article  


Аннотация: «Прелюдии» Клода Дебюсси – это 24 прелюдии, объединенные в два сборника по 12 прелюдий каждый. Каждое из этих небольших произведений настолько самодостаточно, что, как подтверждает практика, их можно исполнять независимо друг от друга. В исследовании поднимается вопрос о возможности использования термина «цикл», в отличие от термина «сборник», для обозначения структурного целого, объединяющего 24 прелюдии Клода Дебюсси. В ходе исследования был выявлен ряд объединяющих факторов, которые пронизывают все уровни каждой из входящих в него работ, и обеспечивают целостное восприятие «Прелюдий». При анализе «Прелюдий» исследователи творчества К. Дебюсси опираются на целый спектр подходов и демонстрируют разнообразие точек зрения (например, Пол Робертс, Зиглинд Брун, Рой Ховат, Саймон Трезис, Бойд Померой, Ральф П. Локе и др.). Однако было обнаружено, что при описании «Прелюдий» ни один из указанных авторов не рассматривает их как цикл с оригинальной музыкальной драматургией. Мы полагаем, что 24 музыкальные миниатюры формируют цикл. Это подтверждается рядом объединяющих факторов, представленных на разных уровнях каждой из работ единого структурного целого, и обеспечивающих целостное восприятие «Прелюдий». Эти объединяющие факторы суть оригинальные, крайне нестандартные композиционные принципы и практики автора, а также технические композиционные решения, формирующие музыкально-драматический поток: целостный музыкальный поток строится по принципу создания целого из ряда фрагментов (тонкая тематическая разработка); особенности художественной техники; особый тип мелодического языка; приемы гармонии; динамика, агогика, штрихи и/или «характер» цветовой палитры; специфические компоненты временной организации, так называемое «дыхание» или «волны» в потоке музыки. В статье, на основе критического анализа, рассматривается «свободное творчество» К. Дебюсси. Именно этот творческий подход лежит в основе 24 анализируемых прелюдий и позволяет авторам статьи рассматривать их как цикл с оригинальной музыкальной драматургией. Abstract: Claude Debussy’s «Préludes» are 24 pieces for solo piano divided into two books of 12 preludes each. Since every miniature represents well-balanced entirety, it could be performed separately, which is most common case. Our research question is as follows: is it possible to consider Debussy’s 24 preludes as a cycle, rather than a collection, and if it does, which are integrative factors that relate all levels of the pieces and affect integral perception of «Préludes»? In different writings on Debussy’s opus, we found various perspectives and approaches in focusing on the «Préludes» (for example, Paul Roberts, Siglind Bruhn, Roy Howat, Simon Trezise, Boyd Pomeroy,  Ralph P. Locke, etc). What we realised is that none of aforementioned authors focus on the «Préludes» as a cycle with a very specific musical dramaturgy. The reason why we consider that the 24 miniatures together form the cycle lies in the fact that there are a number of integrative factors that relate to different musical components and their elements throughout of the whole work and affect the integral perception of «Préludes». These integrative factors derive from Debussy’s uttermost specific compositional principles and compositional procedures, as well as compositional-technical solutions based on which a complete musical-dramatic flow is being built, in terms of: shapingthe entire musical flow on principles of building a structure out of fragments, that is, very specific thematic work; textural organization; specific type of melodic material; harmony solutions; dynamics, agogics, articulation and/or «character» of colour; specified components of temporal organization, that is,...

Фокстрот для оркестра “Канун праздника Св. Фомы” П.М. Дэйвиса: молитва или фарс?

Аннотация: Фокстрот для оркестра Питера Максвелла Дэйвиса «Канун праздника св. Фомы» на павану Дж. Булла был написан по заказу немецкого города Дортмунд в 1969 г. На премьере, состоявшейся в год создания сочинения, композитор дирижировал Дортмундским филармоническим оркестром. Произведение основано на паване Дж. Булла (1562–1628), которая причудливо трансформируется, задействуя разные жанры, композиционные техники, эксперименты со звуком и даже этический подход. В своем творчестве П.М. Дэйвис использовал широкий спектр источников: от средневековых и ренессансных идей до современных стилей. Фокстрот был навеян воспоминаниями детства композитора: маленький Макс слушал фокстроты на граммофоне во время разрушительных бомбежек Манчестера во время Второй мировой войны. В процессе написания сочинения Дэйвис вспомнил детские переживания и пересказал их языком музыки. В оркестровый состав Дэйвис ввел расстроенное пианино, полицейский и судейский свистки, жестяные банки, битое стекло, молотки, что многим напоминало стиль Стравинского. Однако фокстрот Дэйвиса – это не пародия, а важный этап в поисках нового звучания, техники. В статье анализируются начальный замысел композитора, формообразующие приемы, звуковая основа, место сочинения в творческом наследии Дэйвиса. Abstract: Peter Maxwell Davies’s Orchestral piece «St. Thomas Wake» on a Pavan by John Bull was commissioned by the City of Dortmund in 1969 and premiered there by the City of Dortmund Philharmonic Orchestra under the composer as a conductor. The piece is based on St. Thomas Pavan by an English composer John Bull (1562-1628) which is transformed in diverse and exciting ways using different genres, compositional techniques, experiments with sound even ethical approach. P.M. Davies used incredibly wide range of sources in his compositions (their genre range is not fewer): from medieval and Renaissance ideas though Indian music (the subject of the composer’s dissertation) to up-to-date calls. Foxtrot was one of memoirs from his childhood: little Max was listening to foxtrots on the gramophone while air raid on his native Manchester in 1940. We all know that childhood experiences are the most vivid ones. Suppose after the commission from a German city Max recalled that war time episode. «St. Thomas Wake» is just a parody, it is an important step in a process of searching new sound, style and technique All those is analyzed in the article from various points of view: what was the initial idea, how it is embodied, why the sound of the foxtrot makes listeners laugh or clamour, what is the meaning of this work in a vast composer’s heritage. Скачать статью

Русский способ изображения настоящих португальских традиций? Первая Алентежанская сюита Луиша ди Фрейташ Бранку и ее связи с Лузитанским интегрализмом

Аннотация: Луиш ди Фрейташ Бранку – один из самых признанных композиторов Португалии XX столетия. При жизни его имя довольно часто упоминалось в местной и зарубежной прессе в связи с многочисленными премьерами и прочими презентациями его работ, а после смерти жизнь и творчество композитора оказались в центре внимания музыковедов Португалии. Однако некоторые аспекты его жизни либо оставались в тени, либо освещались недостаточно, как, например, его связь с национальным монархическим политическим движением известным как «Лузитанский интегрализм». Это движение, созданное недовольными политическим курсом студентами после провозглашения Республики, лишь недавно было признано музыковедами, в том числе, и как один из ключевых факторов влияния на идеологию «Нового государства» (порт. Estado Novo). Это влияние стало возможным вследствие таких характерных черт интегрализма как национализм, регионализм, традиционализм, поддержка идеи строгой общественной иерархии и отказ от демократии. В 1910-х годах Луиш ди Фрейташ Бранку был верным соратником этого политического движения, принимал участие в пропагандистских собраниях, писал музыкально-критические статьи и хроники в журналы и газеты движения, сочинял оркестровые произведения в поддержку ценностей интегрализма. В их числе можно отметить симфоническую поэму, посвященную некоей исторической личности, которая, как предполагается, внесла вклад в становление португальской государственности. Помимо этого, стоит отметить сольный концерт на фольклорные темы и Алентежанскую сюиту № 1, созданную в 1919 году на основе идей регионализма. Она повествует об одном из регионов на юге Португалии, где сам композитор и несколько представителей интеллигенции, связанные с Лузитанским интегрализмом, имели загородные дома. Примечательно, что равнины Алентежу изображены с обращением к топосам, которые Бородин, апеллируя к Корсакову, использовал в музыкальной обрисовке русских степей. Таким образом, статья ставит целью исследовать связи Луиша ди Фрейташа Бранку с монархическим движением с помощью анализа политических и эстетических воззрений композитора, а также обращения к одному из канонических произведений этого периода, Алентежанской сюите № 1. Abstract: Luís de Freitas Branco is one of the most recognized Portuguese composers of the 20th century. During his life his name often appeared in national and international press on multiple occasions of premières and other presentations of his work. Posthumously, his life and work has been central to Portuguese musicology. However, some dimensions of his life have been hidden or not sufficiently covered, such as his connections with Integralismo Lusitano, a nationalist pro-monarchy political movement. Recently, this movement, created after the Proclamation of the Republic by politically disaffected university students, has been gaining more interest by experts in musicology, and it is often mentioned as one of the main influences on the ideology of Estado Novo due to its nationalism, regionalism, traditionalism, highly hierarchical idealization of  society, and anti-democratic stance. In the 1910s Luís de Freitas Branco was highly committed to this group, participating in propaganda conferences, writing critical reviews and chronicles in journals and newspapers of the movement, and composing orchestral works to praise its values. Amongst them, we can mention a symphonic poem based on a historical figure who supposedly contributed to the foundation of the Portuguese sovereignty, soloist concertos inspired by folklore, and Alentejo Suite No. 1 composed in 1919 with regionalist intentions: it depicted a specific Portuguese region in the South of the...

Равель-аранжировщик: к вопросу о работе композитора над фортепианными и оркестровыми транскрипциями

Аннотация: Переложения и транскрипции как своих собственных, так и чужих произведений – обычная практика для композитора. Однако в творчестве Мориса Равеля фортепианные и оркестровые транскрипции составляют заметную часть и маркируют определенные творческие установки и технологические приемы автора, что определяет предмет данного исследования. В русскоязычном музыковедении это предполагает также постановку вопросов терминологии. Научная новизна исследования связана с тем, что в нем рассматриваются малоизвестные в российской научной и концертной практике транскрипции Равеля – например, «Танца» и «Сарабанды» Дебюсси, «Торжественного менуэта» Шабрие и др. В статье рассматриваются равелевские транскрипции с точки зрения времени их появления, оригинального авторского материала, который обрабатывает Равель, а также с токи зрения их тембрового решения. Большую часть этого наследия Равеля составляют оркестровые версии как своих собственных фортепианных сочинений («Павана почившей инфанте», «Гробница Куперена», «Альборада» и др.), так и композиций других авторов (Дебюсси, Шабрие, Мусоргский). В качестве основного метода исследования выбирается компаративный, поскольку в статье сравниваются разнотембровые композиции, а также разные авторские подходы к фортепианному переложению. Работая с фортепианной транскрипцией, Равель выступает как внимательный, чуткий к нюансам партитуры транскриптор, а также – как усердный ученик, пропустивший «через себя» и освоивший оригинальный звуковой материал, оказавший впоследствии влияние на его собственное творчество. Создавая оркестровые версии своих и чужих фортепианных сочинений, композитор по-новому решает и интерпретирует оригиналы. Равелевский оркестровое чутье, гениальный тембровый слух, фактурная внимательность, чувство меры и безупречный вкус позволяют говорить о нем как о мастере аранжировки. Abstract: It is common practice for composers to make arrangements and transcriptions of their own or other composers’ music. However, Maurice Ravel stands out by his piano and orchestral transcriptions which constitute a prominent part of his works and reveal certain creative purposes and techniques. This shapes the subject of the article which, inter alia, also focuses on terminology not typical for Russian musicology. The study is novel as it examines Ravel’s transcriptions that have been virtually out of research or performance scope in Russia, namely, Debussy’s “Danse” and “Sarabande”, Chabrier’s “Menuet pompeux”, and others. The paper describes Ravel’s transcriptions from three perspectives: time of creation, the original author’s material developed by Ravel, and timbre interpretation. The orchestral versions of his own piano compositions (“Pavana of the Sleeping Infante,” “Tomb of Couperin”, “Alborada”, etc.), as well as compositions by other authors (Debussy, Chabrier, Mussorgsky) form the biggest part of Ravel’s heritage. The article compares compositions written in different timbres as well as different approaches Ravel uses to make piano arrangements, hence, the comparative method is central to the study. Ravel’s piano transcriptions show him as an attentive arranger sensitive to the subtleties of the score as well as a diligent student who has “digested” and mastered the original sound material, which, subsequently, influenced his own work. Creating orchestral versions of his own and his colleagues’ works, the composer remakes and interprets originals in a new way. Ravel’s orchestral instinct, his brilliant timbre ear, attention to structural detail, sense of proportion as well as his impeccable taste make him a genuine master of arrangement. Скачать статью